Monthly Archives: November 2013

The Mixed Blessing of Constantine

I want to reflect on the conversion of Constantine to Christianity, (Roman Emperor from 306-337).

There are more then a handful of crucial historical events in the life of Constantine that changed the course of History forever. Western and Eastern. My knowledge is stronger of the impact these events played on western civilization.

Here are a few things to reflect on in the life of Constantine.

1. Though the head of the church had initially been in Jerusalem with Christ, Peter, and other apostles. Constantin’s conversion allowed overseers from all over the empire to gather in Rome. They did this first under Constantin’s approval and protection. There was no Pope in Rome early on but their was the Bishop of Rome who had great influence. Another city of great apostolic influence was Ephesus. From the time of Constantine things shifted more towards Rome.

2. Around 324 AD Constantine moved to the Greek city of Byzantium and it was later named Constantinople after the emperor. With the shift of Roman authorities further east and again Constantine welcoming and the church came leaders to Constantinople. The Later split of Eastern Orthodox leaders from those of the Roman Catholic Church in 1,000 AD was preceded by this event early 4th century AD.

3. Constantin’s conversion played a key role in the proclamation of the edict of Milan, which brought religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire. Some have falsely assumed that his conversion brought about the intolerance of pagan belief and worship. Constantine himself did not have a part in that. He was however, more concerned about religious freedom within the church. Heresy within the church was punished with the force of the empire.

4. The first counsel of Nicaea was called by Constantine. For the first time Christian overseers could gather without fear of persecution and death. Instead Constantine himself hosted Bishops from all over the Empire.  They could finally narrow down the most beneficial text of the apostles, cut out those more destructive and inconsistent gnostic text that were harmful to their communities and to the view of Christ, his divinity and humanity. The overseers developed the Apostles Creed in order to help the church find unity on the essentials or orthodox views of the church. All other Christian Dogma could be up for debate without fear of being labeled heretical.

5. Because Constantine embraced Christianity himself and protected Christians he took funding that had been given from the empire to pagan temples and gave it to the church. There was a new incentive to converting to Christianity. As the church became the benefactor great wealth it became a target for people looking for an opportunity for power and wealth.  Simony became an ongoing trouble with the “high church”. The church was impacted by this sudden 180* from the persecuted church to the church of privileged, influence, and wealth. Not all negative in themselves but this made Christianity attractive for all the wrong reasons.

So that’s just one handful of some basic impacts made by conversion of Constantine on the church and on western civilization. Jesus was clear with his disciples about the issue of kingdom/church authority. His disciples would become the great apostles who’s teachings and writings would be read and processed and help guide the churches witness for jesus-before-pilate_03_hires1centuries. He said to them, “My kingdom is not of this world. Authority is different in my kingdom. If you want to be great you need to serve others. You need to feed my sheep. If you want to be great it wont be like Roman Authority. The leader is not simply in charge, telling those below what they must do, and making blind slaves to human authority. As those in authority you will serve others. You will feed and serve others so that they are better following the will of the father in heaven just as I do.” His apostles later appointed Bishops (overseers), and Deacons (servants). They were caretakers of the body of Christ. They were not commanders or slave drivers. They pointed others to the example of Christ by serving like Christ and laying down their lives for the spread of the gospel.

Constantin’s conversion effected the way that the church viewed its own authority. But scripture remains clear.

His conversion held blessing for organizing the church, centralizing core doctrines of faith, and bringing unity. The very scriptures we have are a result of Gods sovereignty in the lives of flawed men and women. This highlights something I think we can be aware of in our own time. While privileged, freedom, and wealth have served to strengthen the growth of the church it has also invited the insincere to take advantage and use it for personal gain and power. This can hurt the church.

Is the church to refuse wealth, influence, and freedom? Are we to embrace poverty, privacy, and persecution? What happens when we become the benefactor of influence, wealth, and opportunity.

Reflection on Constantin’s conversion and biblical authority is important because it causes us to question ourselves rather then judge dead people. What will we do with authority, influence, opportunity, and wealth?

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Categories: Bible, Church, History, New Testament, Society/Culture, Worldview | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 5 Comments

Ancient Mythology as Valid as Modern Science

Ridiculous title huh? Maybe not. This post is for people who are seeking to study the scripture with a per-cursor of historical background. I’ve recently read an amazing couple of books and listened to a few of the online lectures done by Professor John H. Walton. He is currently professor of Old Testament at Wheaten College in Chicago.

I have taught the book of Genesis 3 times for our Chronological Bible School in YWAM Mexico. I have taught on Genesis numerous times in churches, small groups, and our Discipleship Training School in YWAM as well. But until this past September I had made a crucial mistake. As I always attempt to relay a good understanding of “Background” Ive often failed to communicate just how the entire Ancient Near Eastern World “Thinks”. You can get caught up in religious practices, politics, geography but nearly miss this important step. And that is to take the risk of grasping how the ancient people thought about life around them.

One major error has been to outright dismiss the ancient Egyptian mythology. That its utterly nonsense to think of the sky as a god, the earth as a god, and so on. Geb,_Nut,_ShuYou have strange pictures taken from archaeology that depict the Egyptians cosmology (Their understanding of everything around them). I typically would mock a few aspects of it and then going on to discribe the biblical narratives of Genesis 1-2 as so far advanced truth about the world we live in. Though I still believe it to be truth I dont have the same sharp contrast in my mind from Egyptian cosmology to the Israelite cosmology we have in scripture. Instead what exists is a wonderful comparison from which contrast can be drawn out. But it first begins with similarities. On the surface you will see far more similarities then differences.

That is not something to be afraid of. Similarities from Ancient Mythology and scripture does not need to dampen our inspirational view of scripture. It may illuminate it and help us understand better how God communicates to man.

The primary similarity that has effected my thinking is in that area of how the ancients view ‘existence’. For something to exist it needed to have a function. For something to have a function their must be a power behind it causing it always to function in the way that it functions. For the ancients there was no natural cause, no natural world, and everything was infused with deity. That’s what made it all work. Just as today it has become more common to say, “there is no God, no supernatural, no miraculous, because we understand the world around us in terms of natural cause everything happens naturally, or anonymously of a higher power or powers. But for the ancients this was not so, everything worked the way it did because their was something, someone, some powers behind it all. Their myths were not nonsense just to be dismissed but a valid way of thinking about the world they lived in.

God validated this way of thinking by communicating not in terms of the natural world but in the terms they were familiar with -terms of function. Genesis 1 then is not just a story of how the natural world came into being. This is how we modern readers interpret as we read. But how did the ancients read Genesis 1?

Ancient readers were able to see simply that not only did God create the physical world but the physical world truly has a specific order given to all things. Only in the Hebrew story there is not a dysfunctional family of gods behind all elements of the universe but One God. Genesis one does not merely capture the creation but that God was planning, structuring, and developing a function for each and all things to exist and have meaning. The Ancient audience would be thrilled to hear that purpose is clearly laid out for all creatures.

And that brings us to a sharp contrast that can be drawn. The ancient audience gets drawn in because Genesis one communicates perfectly to ancient minds and the climax of chapter one is this. That of all things created and given a purpose, the greatest purpose and responsibility is laid upon mankind. This is radically different from their view as former slaves to Egypt, and slaves to the Egyptian worldview. Humanity has been given a job to care for and have dominion over all creation. Man is to steward all God made. Previously man was trapped by his surroundings, a slave to his circumstances. Circumstances that have been brought on by the gods, they are in control and nothing escapes their control not even mans choice. Man is clearly given a choice by God in Genesis one. So man has a choice not controlled by God, and man has purpose given by God. Man can reject Gods purposes and this begins the downward fall into meaningless existence. The ancient Egyptians are on track to find meaning behind everything, they are seeking meaning for their own existence. This is good. This is why God wants to communicate to the ancient audience that what man is missing, a true existence. One that holds meaning, purpose, responsibility, and brings order to the world around them. A world that has fallen into chaos.

Modern Scientist have come back to belief in ultimate chaos. Unlike the ancients there understanding of chaos lead them to seek order. Modern despair leads to scientists who no longer seek order but observe chaos. There is no fight to find an order for human purpose and existence. They seek to better observe the human experience as chaotic and without meaning. Both since the fall have always been a reality for the human situation. But science is not the only approach to finding meaning for our lives. Science on its own is anonymous of God, which makes it anonymous of meaning. To seek what power is behind the natural world may not be scientific but it is still a valid way of understanding the world we live in.

Scripture is the wonderful avenue through which man is privileged to engage with the power behind everything.

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Categories: Ancient Near East, Bible, Church, Context, Cosmology, Egyptian Mythology, Genesis, History, Origins, Philosophy, Science, Society/Culture, Worldview | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

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